- January 16, 2018
- 7:00 pm - 8:30 pm
- Hughes Library, 25 Heritage Green Pl. Greenville, 29601
View Map | Cost: Free
Talk: George Washington
Join an audience that loves talking back to history to discuss the courage of George Washington. Fearless in battle and also a canny political genius, Washington could have been King, but he chose to be a citizen. Let’s talk about it.
This event is NOT a costumed performance. Ron Carnegie, the George Washington at Colonial Williamsburg, will perform as George Washington in Winter Chautauqua (Feb 2,3,4)
AV Huff, PhD is a distinguished author, award-wining teacher, and public servant. A beloved OLLI Teacher, AV’s classes seldom have an empty seat.
He is Professor of History Emeritus and Retired Vice President of Academic Affairs and Dean, Furman University. His PhD is from Duke University. Dr. Huff served on Chautauqua’s Board from its inception in 1999 and is director emeritus.
AV is passionate about southern history and is author of Greenville: The History of the City and County in the South Carolina Piedmont.
John White on submitting George Washington for a Medal of Honor
Most Americans know Washington as the “Father of Our Country.” What many don’t know very well is that he was fearless in combat. Time after time he put himself in harm’s way to command and rally his troops. He led from the front, and his actions in combat compare favorably with the bravest of the brave in our nation’s history.
Washington was never wounded in battle, which caused many of his contemporaries, friend and foe alike, to think he had the protection of divine providence. In fact, Washington himself said as much—not in a boastful way, but with humility and gratitude for being kept safe from harm as he performed his military duty without regard to danger. At 6 feet 3 inches in height and with his distinctive general’s uniform, he was easily recognizable and often a target, especially for sharpshooters. But he was unfazed.
The stories of Washington’s courage under fire are legion and span a military career that even predates the War for Independence.
At the Battle of Fort Wilderness in 1755, during the French and Indian War, for example, Washington served in the Virginia militia as aide to British Gen. Edward Braddock. Near the fort, Braddock’s 1,300-man unit was trapped in a deadly ambush by the French and their Indian allies. Eight hundred British and colonial soldiers were massacred. Washington rode all over the battlefield, carrying Braddock’s orders to other officers.
When the two-hour engagement finally ended, Washington had four musket-ball holes in his greatcoat and had two horses shot from under him. Various survivors later reported that the hail of gunfire at him was so heavy that they expected him to be killed at any moment. He would exhibit that valor again in the War for Independence.
At the Battle of Princeton in January 1777, American militiamen began to flee after the British overran Continental Army troops. On seeing that, Washington rode up with reinforcements and rallied the fleeing militia. Then he personally led the counterattack on the British.
Washington was only 30 yards from the British lines when he ordered his men to fire. When both sides fired, Washington disappeared in the smoke. When the smoke cleared, Washington was unharmed but the British regulars had broken. Washington then ordered a charge and headed directly toward the British troops, yelling at his own soldiers to rally behind him. The British retreated and fled.
Washington’s willingness to lead his troops from the front, while shots from British sharpshooters and his own men flew across the battlefield around him, inspired the American forces to hold together throughout the war. A young officer who observed Washington in combat at the Battle of Princeton wrote, “I saw him brave all the dangers of the field . . . with a thousand deaths flying around him.” The sight of his commander in chief, he said, set an example of courage such as he had never seen.
At the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778, the American soldiers began retreating in disarray. Washington, who was nearby observing the battlefield, rode among them, up and down the British lines, to halt and reverse the rout. Sometimes he was only 30 to 40 feet from the enemy. His only protection was the smoke of battle.
The tide of battle reversed and the British fell into retreat. So furious was Washington’s engagement in the battle that before the day was out his horse died of exhaustion and was replaced. The French Lt. Gen. Marquis de Lafayette observed that Washington rode “all along the lines amid the shouts of the soldiers, cheering them by his voice and example and restoring to our standard the fortune of the fight.”
In 1976 Congress gave George Washington the five-star rank of General of the Armies of the United States. That made him the highest ranking military officer in American history. A Medal of Honor would be a fitting action to recognize him not simply as the commander of the Continental Army, the president of the Constitutional Convention and the first president of the United States—but also as one of the nation’s most heroic combat soldiers.
Timeline from George Washington Papers at George Washington University
- 1732: George Washington is born in Westmoreland County, Virginia to Augustine Washington and his second wife Mary Ball
- 1738: Washington family moves to Ferry Farm (a plantation on the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg); George Washington spends most of his youth here
- 1743: Augustine Washington, George’s father, dies. George Washington is only 11 years old. Although George Washington is the older child of his household, Augustine leaves most of his property to his sons from his first marriage. Following the death of his father, George Washington’s formal education ended. Washington inherited 10 slaves from his father’s estate.
- 1749: George Washington is appointed county surveyor of the frontier county of Culpeper. He was seventeen years old.
- 1751-1752: George Washington travels to Barbados with his half-brother Lawrence in an attempt to cure the latter of a respiratory illness. George contracts smallpox while he is on the island. The trip is the only time George Washington travels outside of the North American continent.
- 1753: Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie sends Major George Washington to the Ohio Valley to deliver a message to the French, demanding that they leave the area. A few months later, Major Washington and 150 soldiers to the Ohio Valley to fight for Virginia’s claim of the land. Washington’s men engaged in a combative confrontation with French soldiers. Following this skirmish, Washington and his men retreated to the makeshift Fort Necessity, where Washington was forced to surrender. This event deeply embarrassed Washington and he resigned his commission. This failed campaign also sparked the French and Indian War.
- 1755: Washington returns to the Ohio frontier as a volunteer aide for General Braddock. During a battle between the French and the British near the Monongahela River, Washington exhibited great courage and leadership. He was later recognized for his conduct in battle with a promotion and was given command of the entire military force of Virginia.
- 1759: On January 6, 1759, George Washington married Martha Dandridge Custis. A native of the Tidewater region of Virginia, Martha Custis was a young widow who had inherited an enormous amount of wealth after the passing of her first husband, Daniel Parke Custis, and was the mother of two young children, Jacky and Patsy. Following their marriage, the newlywed couple, Jacky, and Patsy moved to Mount Vernon.
- 1759-1775: George Washington was a Gentleman Farmer at Mount Vernon in the years between his marriage to Martha and the onset of the American Revolution. Washington experimented with different farming techniques while also expanding his home at Mount Vernon.
- 1775: The newly formed Congress appointed George Washington to be the commander of the Continental Army. Washington would hold this position for the entirety of the American Revolution, totaling eight years.
- 1783: Following the end of the American Revolution, Washington addressed Congress on December 23 in Annapolis and resigned his commission. Through this action, Washington gave the power back to the people and was declared a hero around the world.
- 1787: Although determined to retire from public life after the Revolutionary War, Washington enters the public sphere and is unanimously elected president of what is now known as the Constitutional Convention.
- 1789: George Washington is unanimously elected as first President of the United States
- 1793: Washington begins his second term as President
- 1797: Refusing a third term, Washington retired from the presidency and all public life. By leaving office after two terms, Washington set a precedent that has been held to by most of the American presidents who followed him. He returns to Mount Vernon and enjoys a peaceful retirement.
- 1799: George Washington passed away on December 14 from a throat infection called epiglottitis in his bedroom at Mount Vernon. He was surrounded by close friends and his loving wife Martha.
- The price of greatness is responsibility.
- If you’re going through hell, keep going.
- Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.
- I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.
- A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.
- We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give.
- I like pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals.
- It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried.
- An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
- The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter.
- Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened.
- There are a terrible lot of lies going around the world, and the worst of it is half of them are true.
- A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject.
- All great things are simple, and many can be expressed in single words: freedom, justice, honor, duty, mercy, hope.
- Broadly speaking, the short words are the best, and the old words best of all.
- Nothing in life is so exhilarating as to be shot at without result.
- Founding Faith: How Our Founding Fathers Forged a Radical New Approach to Religious Liberty by Stephen Waldeman (2008)
While not specifically about Washington (it is actually about the First Amendment and Freedom of Faith) this book includes one of the best and unbiased discussions of Washington’s personal faith, the single most hotly debated topic of Washington scholarship today.
- George Washington and the New Nation: 1783-1793 by James T Flexner (1970)
This is basically volume three of one of the most important biographies of Washington. This book details Washington’s life from arriving home as the victorious retired General of the Revolution through to the end of his first term as president.
- George Washington: Anguish and Farewell 1793-1799 by James T Flexner (1972)
The fourth book of Flexner’s Washington opus. This book deals with Washington’s troublesome second term, his leaving the office of presidency and entrance into retirement and eventual death. Not the happiest of the series, but it does include the period of my presentation and Washington’s stepping away from power for the second time.
- George Washington in the American Revolution (1775-1783) by James T Flexner (1968)
The second book in Flexner’s quartet, detailing the war years.
- George Washington: The Forge of Experience, 1732-1775 by James T Flexner (1965)
The first of the Flexner books and probably the hardest to get through as well. Very little is known of Washington’s childhood and both Flexner and Freeman fill this absence with a long genealogy of Washington’s forefathers. A subject Washington himself didn’t care much about. This book does cover Washington’s formative years as a surveyor, Colonel in the French Indian War and his introduction to politics as a member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses.
- Washington: The Indispensable Man by James T. Flexner (2012)
Flexner’s four volume series on Washington is considered by many to be the most comprehensive biography available. Indispensible Man does condense this into one volume without losing much of importance. One of the two most readable books on this list.
- Maxims of George Washington: Political, Military, Social, Moral, and Religious edited by John Frederick Schroeder (1989)
This is not a biography, but rather a collection of Washington quotes gathered by various topics. It is also well annotated so the full documents from which the quotes were taken may be found.
- 1776 by David McCullough (2006)
Not Really a biography of Washington, but great character studies of many of the men instrumental to the American Revolution, and a great introduction to the war.
- Washington by Douglas Southall Freeman (1948-54)
Freeman is in my opinion the single best biographer of Washington, though his work can be a little dry and very occasionally there is newer scholarship. I prefer the original seven volume work, but there is a more convenient abridged version which is still over 700 pages long. The condensed copy is not only a bit more manageable, it has the advantage of being a little more readily available, the original being long out of print.
- Washington: A Life by Ron Chernow (2010)
Certainly the best of more modern books on Washington, and it reads like a novel.